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American Concrete Institute. ACI
The reinforced concrete design manual :
in accordance with the ACI 318-11 /
editors, Ronald Janowiak, Michael Kreger, Antonio Nanni.
Farmington Hills, MI :
American Concrete Institute,
[2012].
v. 2 :
il. ;
28 cm.
ACI SP-17 (11)
Volume 1
Editors: Ronald Janowiak, Michael Kreger, and Antonio Nanni
ACI SP-17(11)1
CONTENTS
Chapter 1—Design for flexure
1.1—Introduction.
1.2—Nominal and design flexural strengths (Mn and ΦMn) .
1.2.1—Rectangular sections with tension reinforcement
1.2.2—Rectangular sections with compression reinforcement
1.2.3—T-sections
1.3—Minimum flexural reinforcement
1.4—Placement of reinforcement in sections
1.4.1—Minimum spacing of longitudinal reinforcement
1.4.2—Concrete protection for reinforcement
1.4.3—Maximum spacing of flexural reinforcement and crack control
1.4.4—Skin reinforcement
1.5—Flexure examples
Flexure Example 1: Calculation of tension reinforcement area for a rectangular tension-controlled cross section
Flexure Example 2: Calculation of nominal flexural strength of a rectangular beam subjected to positive bending
Flexure Example 3: Calculation of tension reinforcement area for a rectangular cross section in the transition zone
Flexure Example 4: Selection of slab thickness and area of flexural reinforcement
Flexure Example 5: Calculation of tension and compression reinforcement area for a rectangular beam section subjected to positive bending
Flexure Example 6: Calculation of tension reinforcement area for a T-section subjected to positive
bending, behaving as a rectangular section
Flexure Example 7: Computation of the tension reinforcement area for a T-section, subjected to positive
bending, behaving as a tension-controlled T-section
Flexure Example 8: Calculation of the area of tension reinforcement for an L-beam section,subjected to positive bending behaving as an L-section in the transition zone
Flexure Example 9: Placement of reinforcement in the rectangular beam section designed in Flexure Example 1
Flexure Example 10: Placement of reinforcement in the slab section designed in Flexure Example 4
1.6—Flexure design aids
Flexure 1: Flexural coefficients for rectangular beams with tension reinforcement; fy = 60,000 psi
Flexure 2: Flexural coefficients for rectangular beams with tension reinforcement; fy = 60,000 psi
Flexure 3: Flexural coefficients for rectangular beams with tension reinforcement; fy = 75,000 psi
Flexure 4: Flexural coefficients for rectangular beams with tension reinforcement; fy = 75,000 psi
Flexure 5: Reinforcement ratio p′for compression reinforcement
Flexure 6: T-beam construction and definition of effective flange width
Flexure 7: Reinforcement ratio pf (%) balancing concrete in overhang(s) in T- or L-beams; fy = 60,000 psi
Flexure 8: Reinforcement ratio pf (%) balancing concrete in overhang(s) in T- or L-beams; fy = 75,000 psi
Flexure 9: Bar spacing and cover requirements
Flexure 10: Skin reinforcement
Chapter 2—Design for shear
2.1—Introduction
2.2—Shear strength of beams
2.3—Designing shear reinforcement for beams
2.4—Shear strength of two-way slabs
2.5—Shear strength with torsion and flexure
2.6—Shear design examples.
Shear Example 1: Determine stirrups required for simply supported beam.
Shear Example 2: Determine beam shear strength of concrete by method of Section 11.2.2.1
Shear Example 3: Vertical U-stirrups for beam with triangular shear diagram
Shear Example 4: Vertical U-stirrups for beam with trapezoidal and triangular shear diagram
Shear Example 5: Determination of perimeter shear strength at an interior column supporting a flat slab (αs = 40)
Shear Example 6: Determination of thickness required for perimeter shear strength of a flat slab at an interior rectangular column
Shear Example 7: Determination of perimeter shear strength at an interior rectangular column supporting a flat slab (βc > 4)
Shear Example 8: Determination of required thickness of a footing to satisfy perimeter shear strength at a rectangular column.
Shear Example 9: Determination of strength of a flat slab based on required perimeter shear strength at an interior round column
Shear Example 10: Determination of thickness required for a flat slab based on required perimeter shear strength at an interior round column
Shear Example 11: Determination of thickness of a square footing to satisfy perimeter shear strength
under a circular column
Shear Example 12: Determination of closed ties required for the beam shown to resist flexural shear and
determinate torque
Shear Example 13: Determination of closed ties required for the beam of Example 12 to resist flexural shear
and indeterminate torque
2.7—Shear design aids
Shear 1: Section limits based on required nominal shear stress = Vu/(Φbwd) .
Shear 2: Shear strength coefficients Kfc, Kvc, and Kvs 54
Shear 3: Minimum beam height to provide development length required for No. 6, No. 7, and No. 8
Grade 60 stirrups
Shear 4.1: Shear strength Vs with Grade 40 U-stirrups
Shear 4.2: Shear strength Vs with Grade 60 U-stirrups
Shear 5.1: Shear strength of slabs based on perimeter shear at interior rectangular columns (αs = 40)
when no shear reinforcement is used
Shear 5.2: Shear strength of slabs based on perimeter shear at interior round columns when no shear reinforcement is used
Shear 6.1: Shear and torsion coefficients Kt and Ktcr
Shear 6.2: Shear and torsion coefficient Kts
Chapter 3—Short column design
3.1—Introduction
3.2—Column sectional strength.
3.2.1—Column interaction diagrams
3.2.2—Flexure with tension axial load
3.3—Columns subjected to biaxial bending
3.3.1—Reciprocal load method
3.3.2—Load contour method
3.4—Columns examples
Columns Example 1: Determination of required steel area for a rectangular tied column with bars
on four faces with slenderness ratio below critical value .
Columns Example 2: For a specified reinforcement ratio, select a column size for a rectangular tied column with bars on end faces only
Columns Example 3: Selection of reinforcement for a square spiral column with slenderness ratio below critical value
Columns Example 4: Design of square column section subject to biaxial bending using resultant moment
Columns Example 5: Design of circular spiral column section subject to small design moment
3.5—Columns design aids
Chapter 4—Design of slender columns
4.1—Introduction
4.2—Slenderness ratio
4.2.1—Unsupported length lu
4.2.2—Effective length factor k
4.2.3—Radius of gyration r
4.3—Lateral bracing and designation of frames as nonsway .
4.4—Design of slender columns
4.4.1—Slender columns in nonsway frames
4.4.2—Slender columns in sway frames.
4.4.3—Upper limit on second-order effects
4.5—Slender columns examples
Slender Columns Example 1: Design of an interior column braced against sidesway
Slender Columns Example 2: Design of an exterior column in a sway frame using the moment magnification method
4.6—Slender columns design aids
Slender Columns 4.1: Effective length factor—Jackson and Moreland alignment chart for columns
in braced (nonsway) frames (Column Research Council 1966).
Slender Columns 4.2: Effective length factor—Jackson and Moreland alignment chart for columns
in unbraced (sway) frames (Column Research Council 1966)
Slender Columns 4.3: Recommended flexural rigidities (EI) for use in first-order and second-order analyses of frames for design of slender columns
Slender Columns 4.4: Effective length factor k for columns in braced frames
Slender Columns 4.5: Moment of inertia of reinforcement about sectional centroid
Chapter 5—Footing design
5.1—Introduction. 191
5.2—Foundation types
5.3—Allowable stress design and strength design
5.4—Structural design
5.5—Footings subject to eccentric loading
5.6—Footings examples
Footings Example 1: Design of a continuous (wall) footing
Footings Example 2: Design of a square spread footing
Footings Example 3: Design of a rectangular spread footing.
Footings Example 4: Design of a pile cap
Footings Example 5: Design of a continuous footing with an overturning moment
Chapter 6—Seismic design
6.1—Introduction
6.2—Limitations on materials
6.3—Flexural members of special moment frames
6.3.1—Flexural design
6.3.2—Shear design
6.4—Special moment frame members subjected to bending and axial load .
6.4.1—Flexural design
6.4.2—Strong-column weak-beam concept
6.4.3—Confinement reinforcement
6.4.4—Shear design
6.5—Joints of special moment frames
6.5.1—Joint shear strength
6.5.2—Joint reinforcement
6.6—Members of intermediate moment frames
6.6.1—Flexural design
6.6.2—Shear design
6.7—Members not designed as part of the lateral-force-resisting system.
6.8—Seismic design examples
Seismic Design Example 1: Adequacy of beam flexural design for a special moment frame
Seismic Design Example 2: Design of the critical end regions of a beam in a special moment frame for shear and confinement
Seismic Design Example 3: Design of a column of a special moment frame for longitudinal and confinement reinforcement
Seismic Design Example 4: Shear strength of a monolithic beam-column joint
6.9—Seismic design aids
Seismic 1: Requirements for flexural members of special moment frames
Seismic 2: Details of transverse reinforcement for flexural members of special moment frames
Seismic 3: Probable moment strength for flexural members
Seismic 4: Shear strength for flexural members and members subjected to bending and axial load of special moment frames.
Seismic 5: Requirements for members subjected to bending and axial load of special moment frames
Seismic 6: Volumetric ratio of spiral reinforcement ρs for concrete confinement
Seismic 7: Area ratio of rectilinear confinement reinforcement ρc for concrete
Seismic 8: Joint shear Vj in an interior beam-column joint.
Seismic 9: Joint shear Vj in an exterior beam-column joint
Seismic 10: Requirements for flexural members and members subjected to bending and axial load of intermediate moment frames
Seismic 11: Shear strength for flexural members and members subjected to bending and axial load of intermediate frames
Chapter 7—Deflection
7.1—Introduction
7.2—Limitations on member thickness
7.3—Deflection behavior of beams
7.4—Deflection examples
Deflection Example 1: Effective moment of inertia for a rectangular section with tension reinforcement
Deflection Example 2: Deflection of a simple span, rectangular beam with tension reinforcement .
Deflection Example 3: Moment of inertia of a cracked T-section with tension reinforcement
Deflection Example 4: Moment of inertia of a cracked section with tension and compression reinforcement
Deflection Example 5: Live-load deflection of a continuous beam .
Deflection Example 6: Effective moment of inertia of a rectangular beam with tension reinforcement
Deflection Example 7: Cracking moment for T-section
7.5—Deflection design aids
Deflection 7.1: Cracking moment Mcr for rectangular sections.
Deflection 7.2: Cracking moment Mcr for T- or L-sections with tension at the bottom (positive moment)
Deflection 7.3.1: Cracking moment Mcr for T- or L-sections with tension at the top (negative moment);
βh = 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20
Deflection 7.3.2: Cracking moment Mcr for T- or L-sections with tension at the top (negative moment);
βh = 0.25, 0.30, and 0.40
Deflection 7.4: Cracked section moment of inertia Icr for rectangular sections with tension reinforcement only
Deflection 7.5: Gross moment of inertia Ig for T-section
Deflection 7.6.1: Cracked-section moment of inertia Icr for rectangular sections with compression steel,
or T-sections (values of Ki2); for βc from 0.1 through 0.9
Deflection 7.6.2: Cracked-section moment of inertia Icr for rectangular sections with compression steel,
or T-sections (values of Ki2); for βc from 1.0 through 5.0
Deflection 7.7.1: Effective moment of inertia Ie (values of Ki3)
Deflection 7.7.2: Effective moment of inertia Ie for rectangular sections with tension reinforcement only
(values of Ki3)
Deflection 7.8.1: Coefficient Ka3 and typical Mc formulas for calculating immediate deflection of flexural members
Deflection 7.8.2: Coefficient Ka1 for calculating immediate deflection of flexural members.
Deflection 7.9: Creep and shrinkage deflection (additional long-time deflection) due to sustained loads
Deflection 7.10: Modulus of elasticity Ec for various concrete strengths
Chapter 8—Strut-and-tie model
8.1—Introduction.
8.2—Concept
8.3—Design
8.4—Struts
8.5—Ties
8.6—Nodal zones.
8.7—Usual calculation steps and modeling consideration to apply strut-and-tie model
8.8—References
8.9—Strut-and-tie examples
Strut-and-tie Example 1: Strut-and-tie model of a deep beam without shear reinforcement
Strut-and-tie Example 2: Strut-and-tie model of a deep beam with shear reinforcement
Strut-and-tie Example 3: Design of one-sided corbel using strut-and-tie method.
Strut-and-tie Example 4: Design of double corbel.
Strut-and-tie Example 5: Design a pile cap subjected to the dead and live load axial forces and to axial forces and overturning moment
References
Referenced standards and reports
Cited references
Appendix A—Reference tables
Table A-1: Nominal cross section area, weight, and nominal diameter of ASTM standard reinforcing bars
Table A-2: Area of bars in a section 1 ft wide
Table A-3: Minimum beam web widths required for two or more bars in one layer for cast-in-place non-prestressed concrete
Table A-4: Minimum beam web widths for various bar combinations (interior exposure)
Table A-5: Properties of bundled bars
Table A-6: Minimum beam web widths bw for various combinations of bundled bars (interior exposure)
Table A-7: Basic development length ratios of bars in tension
Table A-8: Basic development length ldh of standard hooks in tension
Appendix B—Analysis tables
Table B-1: Beam diagrams
Table B-2: Moments and reactions in continuous beams under uniformly distributed loads
Table B-3: Moments and reactions in continuous beams under central point loads.
Table B-4: Moments and reactions in continuous beams, point loads at third points of span
Table B-5: Approximate moments and shears for continuous beams and one-way slabs
Table B-6: Beams with prismatic haunch at one end
Table B-7: Beams with prismatic haunch at both ends
Table B-8: Prismatic member with equal infinitely stiff end regions
Table B-9: Prismatic member with infinitely stiff region at one end
Table B-10: Prismatic member with unequal infinitely stiff end regions
Appendix C—Sectional properties
Table C-1: Properties of sections
Table C-2: Properties of sections
Volume 2
Chapter 9—Anchoring to concrete
9.1—Introduction.
9.2—Materials
9.3—Design assumptions
9.4—Loads on anchors
9.4.1—Tension
9.4.2—Shear
9.4.3—Interaction
9.5—Discussion on anchors resisting tension
9.5.1—Steel strength
9.5.2—Concrete breakout strength
9.5.3—Pullout strength
9.5.4—Concrete side-face blowout strength.
9.5.5—Bond strength of adhesive anchor
9.6—Discussion on anchors resisting shear
9.6.1—Steel strength.
9.6.2—Concrete breakout strength
9.6.3—Concrete pryout strength
9.6.4—Shear parallel to the edge
9.6.5—Shear strength at a corner
9.7—Limitations on installation geometry
References 7
9.8—Anchorage examples
Anchorage Example 1: Baseplate anchors not subjected to shear force or tension
Anchorage Example 2: Cast-in headed anchor in Seismic Design Category D, subjected to tension only
Anchorage Example 3: Post-installed expansion anchor in Seismic Design Category B, subjected to tension force only
Anchorage Example 4: Post-installed adhesive anchor in Seismic Design Category B, subjected to tension force only
Anchorage Example 5: Cast-in headed anchor in Seismic Design Category A, subjected to shear
Anchorage Example 6: Post-installed expansion anchor in Seismic Design Category A, subjected to shear
Anchorage Example 7: Post-installed adhesive anchor in Seismic Design Category A, subjected to shear
Anchorage Example 8: Cast-in hex-headed anchor in Seismic Design Category A, resisting tension and shear forces
Anchorage Example 9: Cast-in hooked anchor in Seismic Design Category A, resisting tension and shear forces
Anchorage Example 10: Post-installed expansion anchor in Seismic Design Category A, resisting tension
and shear forces
Anchorage Example 11: Post-installed adhesive anchor in Seismic Design Category A, resisting tension
and shear force
Anchorage Example 12: Group of cast-in studs in Seismic Design Category A, resisting a concentric tensile force
Anchorage Example 13: Group of post-installed adhesive anchors in Seismic Design Category A, resisting
a concentric tensile force
Anchorage Example 14: Cast-in group of studs subjected to shear force and moment
Anchorage Example 15: Post-installed adhesive group of anchors subjected to shear and moment
Anchorage Example 16: Cast-in studs resisting tension force applied eccentrically to the two axes of symmetry
Anchorage Example 17: Post-installed adhesive anchors resisting tension force having double eccentricity
Anchorage Example 18: Cast-in column anchors resisting tension and shear forces
Anchorage Example 19: Post-installed adhesive column anchors resisting tension and shear forces
Tables
2725
CONCRETO REFORZADO
MANUALES
MANUALES, GUÍAS, ETC
3390
DIBUJO DE ESTRUCTURAS
MANUALES, GUÍAS, ETC
Janowiak, Ronald.
1545
Nanni, Antonio.
1127
1546
Kreger, Michael E.
(Michael Eugene),
1957
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